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- Parasite Classification | - Parasite, Body Site |
- Stool Testing Order Recommendations | - STAT Testing |
- Fecal Fixatives | - Stool Collection Options | - Report Comments |
- Tips for Fecal ImmunoAssay | - Malaria (5 Species) |
- Malaria (5 Species) Images | - Rapid Malaria Testing |
- Malaria Parasitemia Method | - Malaria Parasitemia Interpretation |
- USE OF A REFERENCE LABORATORY FOR PARASITE BLOOD DIAGNOSTIC TESTING (Including the Binax Rapid Test and Report Comments)

- HELMINTH PARASITES ASSOCIATED WITH EOSINOPHILIA | - Histology: Staining Characteristics - Table 1 | - Histological Identification of Parasites - Table 2 | - Microscope Calibration | - Figures for Histology Identification Table 2
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HELMINTH PARASITES ASSOCIATED WITH EOSINOPHILIA

Eosinophils dysregulate immune responses associated with malignancies, allergic and parasitic diseases especially helminthic infections, though it is infrequently observed with protozoan diseases. 

Eosinophilia associated with parasite infections is associated specifically with tissue invasion and migration of helminthic parasites, and the degree of peripheral eosinophilia is usually proportional to the extent of tissue invasion. The most common cause of eosinophilia worldwide is helminthic infections, and the most common cause in industrialized nations is atopic disease.  Atopic dermatitis, also called eczema, is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disease of the skin that leads to itching and risks for skin infection. It is the most common skin disease in children: about 10% to 20% of children in the United States and Western Europe have atopic dermatitis.  Atopic reactions (commonly caused by mite feces, animal dander, pollen, or mold) are IgE-mediated allergic reactions that trigger histamine release. 

The terms atopy and allergy are often used interchangeably but are different: Atopy is an exaggerated IgE-mediated immune response; all atopic disorders are type I hypersensitivity disorders. Allergy is any exaggerated immune response to a foreign antigen regardless of mechanism.

 

Primary Location in Host

Parasite Species

Nematodes

Blood and Lymphatics

Brugia malayi, B. timori
Wuchereria bancrofti
Loa loa
Mansonella ozzardi, M. perstans

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissues

Onchocerca volvulus
Loa loa

Ancylostoma braziliense
A. caninum
(Cutaneous larva migrans)

Dracunculus medinensis
Gnathostoma spinigerum

Toxocara canis, T. catis
(Visceral larva migrans)

Muscle

Trichinella spp.

Gastrointestinal Tract

Ascaris lumbricoides
Necator americanus

Ancylostoma duodenale (human)
A. caninum (canine)
(Eosinophilic enteritis

Strongyloides stercoralis
Capillaria philippinensis
Trichuris trichiura

Lungs

Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia
(hypersensitivity reaction to Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi antigens; cough, breathlessness, wheezing, chest pain – symptoms usually nocturnal)

NOTE:  Many use the term Loeffler’s syndrome to refer to any form of acute onset pulmonary eosinophilia, regardless of the underlying cause.

Migrating larva of:
Ascaris lumbricoides
            Necator americanus
            Ancylostoma duodenale
            Strongyloides stercoralis

Liver

Toxocara canis, T. cati

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Angiostrongylus cantonensis

TREMATODES

Liver

Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum,
S. mekongi

Lung

Paragonimus spp.

Urinary Tract

Schistosoma haematobium

CESTODES

Multiple, especially liver, lung

Echinococcus granulosus
E. multilocularis
Taenia solium (cysticercosis)