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Informational Tables

- 1.1 Parasite Classification | - 1.2 Body Site, Specimens, Procedures, Parasites, Comments | - 1.3 STAT Testing in Parasitology | - 1.4 Test Issues and Reports: Computer Report Comments| - 1.5 Rapid Diagnostic Testing
- 2.1 Stool Testing Order Recommendations | - 2.2 Fecal specimens for parasites: options for collection and processinga2 | - 2.3 Preservatives used for Stool Specimens
- 3.1 Body Sites and Specimen Collection | - 3.2 Body sites and the most common parasites recovered | - 3.3 Body Site, Specimens and Recommended Stain | - 3.4 Examination of tissues and body fluids | - 3.5 Parasitic Infections: Clinical Findings Healthy/Compromised Hosts | - 3.6 Microscope Calibration | - 3.7 Serologic, Antigen, and Probe Tests for Parasite Diagnosis
- 4.1 Protozoa: Intestinal Tract, Urogenital System: Key Characteristics | - 4.2 Tissue Protozoa: Characteristics | - 4.3 Tips on Performance of Fecal Immunoassays for Intestinal Protozoa
5.1 Helminths: Key Characteristics | 5.2 Helminth Parasites Associated with Eosinophilia
6.1 Reference Laboratory for Parasite Blood Testing | 6.2 Parasites Found in Blood: Characteristics
7.1 Malaria (5 Species) (2 P. ovale subspecies) | 7.2 Malaria (5 Species, Images) | 7.3 Rapid Malaria Testing (BinaxNOW Malaria Test) | 7.4 Malaria Parasitemia Method | 7.5 Malaria Parasitemia Interpretation

- HELMINTH PARASITES ASSOCIATED WITH EOSINOPHILIA | - Histology: Staining Characteristics - Table 1 | - Histological Identification of Parasites - Table 2 | - Microscope Calibration | - Figures for Histology Identification Table 2

Table 2



I. Protozoa

 A. Intestinal amebae

Entamoeba histolytica

Entamoeba dispara

Entamoeba moshkovskii

Entamoeba bangladeshi

Entamoeba hartmanni

Entamoeba coli

Entamoeba polecki

Endolimax nana

Iodamoeba bütschlii

Blastocystis spp.

B. Intestinal flagellates

Giardia lambliab

Chilomastix mesnili

Dientamoeba fragilis

Pentatrichomonas hominis

Enteromonas hominis

Retortamonas intestinalis

C. Intestinal ciliates

Balantidium coli (Neobalantidium coli)

D. Intestinal apicomplexa, coccidia, and microsporidia


Cryptosporidium parvum

Cryptosporidium hominis


2. Coccidia

Cyclospora cayetanensis

Cystoisospora belli

Sarcocystis hominis

Sarcocystis suihominis


Enterocytozoon bieneusi

Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis

E. Sporozoa and Flagellates from blood and tissue

1.Sporozoa (causing malaria and babesiosis)

Plasmodium vivax

Plasmodium ovale

Plasmodium malariae

Plasmodium falciparum

Plasmodium knowlesi

Babesia spp.

2. Flagellates (leishmaniae and trypanosomes)

a.Old World Leishmania species

Leishmania (Leishmania) tropica

Leishmania (Leishmania) major

Leishmania (Leishmania) aethiopica

Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani

Leishmania (Leishmania) archibaldi

Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum

 b.New World Leishmania species

Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana

Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

Leishmania (Leishmania) pifanoi

Leishmania (Leishmania) garnhami

Leishmania (Leishmania) venezuelensis

Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi

Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis

Leishmania (Viannia) colombiensis

Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis

Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni

Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi

Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis

Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana

Leishmania (Viannia) shawi

c. Old World Trypanosoma species

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

d. New World Trypanosoma species

Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma rangeli

F. Amebae and flagellates from other body sites

1. Amebae

Naegleria fowleri

Sappinia diploidea


Hartmannella spp.

Balamuthia mandrillaris

Entamoeba gingivalis

2. Flagellates

Trichomonas vaginalis

Trichomonas tenax

G. Coccidia, sporozoa, and microsporidia from other body sites

1. Coccidia

Toxoplasma gondii

2. Microsporidia

Nosema ocularum

Pleistophora spp.

Pleistophora ronneafiei

Trachipleistophora hominis

Trachipleistophora anthropophthera

Anncaliia vesicularum

Anncaliia (Brachiola) algerae

Anncaliia (Brachiola) connori

Encephalitozoon cuniculi

Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis

Encephalitozoon hellem

Enterocytozoon bieneusi

Vittaforma corneae (Nosema corneum)


II. Nematodes (roundworms)

A. Intestinal

Ascaris lumbricoides

Enterobius vermicularis

Ancylostoma duodenale

Necator americanus

Strongyloides stercoralis

Strongyloides fuelleborni

Trichostrongylus colubriformis

Trichostrongylus orientalis

Trichostrongylus spp.

Trichuris trichiura

Capillaria philippinensis

B. Tissue

Trichinella spiralis

Trichinellaspp. (T. britovi, T. murrelli, T. nativa, T. nelsoni, T. papuae, T. pseudospiralis, T. zimbabwensis)

Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (visceral and ocular larva migrans)

Ancylostoma braziliense and ncylostoma caninum (cutaneous larva migrans)

Dracunculus medinensis

Angiostrongylus cantonensis

Angiostrongylus costaricensis

Gnathostoma spinigerum

Anisakis spp. (larvae from saltwater fish)

Phocanemaspp. (larvae from saltwater fish)

Contracaecum(larvae from saltwater fish)


Porrocaecum spp.

Capillaria hepatica

Thelazia spp.

Ternidens diminutus

C. Blood and tissues (filarial worms)

Wuchereria bancrofti

Brugia malayi

Brugia timori

Loa loa

Onchocerca volvulus

Mansonella ozzardi

Mansonella streptocerca

Mansonella perstans

Dirofilaria immitis (usually found in lung lesions, eyes; in dogs, heartworm)

III. Cestodes (tapeworms)

A. Intestinal

Diphyllobothrium latum

Diplogonoporus spp.

Dipylidium caninum

Hymenolepis nana

Hymenolepis diminuta

Taenia solium

Taenia saginata

Taenia asiatica

B. Tissue (larval forms)

Taenia solium

Echinococcus granulosu

Echinococcus multilocularis

Echinococcus vogeli

Echinococcus oligarthrus

Multiceps multiceps

Spirometra mansonoide

Diphyllobothrium spp.

IV. Trematodes (flukes)

A. Intestinal

Fasciolopsis buski

Echinostoma ilocanum

Echinochasmus perfoliatus

Heterophyes heterophyes

Metagonimus yokogawai

Gastrodiscoides hominis

Phaneropsolus bonnei

Prosthodendrium molenkempi

Spelotrema brevicaeca

Plagiorchis spp.

Neodiplostomum seoulense

B. Liver and lung

Clonorchis (Opisthorchis) sinensis

Opisthorchis viverrini

Opisthorchis felineus

Dicrocoelium dendriticum

Fasciola hepatica

Fasciola gigantica

Metorchis conjunctus

Paragonimus westermani

Paragonimus kellicotti

Paragonimus africanus

Paragonimus uterobilateralis

Paragonimus miyazakii

Paragonimus mexicanus

Paragonimus caliensis

C. Blood

Schistosoma mansoni

Schistosoma haematobium

Schistosoma japonicum

Schistosoma intercalatum

Schistosoma mekongi

Schistosoma malayi

Schistosoma matteei

V. Pentastomids (tongue worms); see Arthropods below

A. Tissue (larval forms)

Armillifer spp.

Linguatula serrata

Sebekia spp.

B. Nasopharyngeal

Armillifer spp.

Linguatula serrata

VI. Acanthocephalans (thorny-headed worms)

A. Intestine>

Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus

Moniliformis moniliformis

VII. Arthropods

A. Arachnida


Spiders (black widow, brown recluse)

Ticks (Dermacentor, Ixodes, Argas, and Ornithodoros spp.)

Mites (Sarcoptes spp.))

B. Crustacea

Copepods (Cyclops spp.)

Crayfish, lobsters, and crabs

C. Pentastomida

Tongue worms

D. Diplopoda


E. Chilopoda


F. Insecta

Phthiraptera (sucking lice [Pediculus and Phthirus spp.])

Blattaria (cockroaches)

Hemiptera (true bugs [Triatoma spp.])

Coleoptera (beetles)

Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, etc.)

Lepidoptera (butterflies, caterpillars, moths, etc.)

Diptera (flies, mosquitoes, gnats, and midges[Phlebotomus, Aedes, Anopheles, Glossina,Simulium spp., etc.])

Siphonaptera (fleas [Pulex and Xenopsylla spp., etc.])


Parasite Classification and Relevant Body Sites

a The name Entamoeba histolytica is used to designate the true pathogen, while the name E. dispar is now being used to designate the nonpathogen. However, unless trophozoites containing ingested red blood cells (E. histolytica) are seen, the two organisms cannot be differentiated on the basis of morphology seen in permanent stained smears of fecal specimens. Fecal immunoassays are available for detecting the Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar group or for differentiating between the two species. E. moshkovskii and E. bangladeshi cannot be differentiated from E. histolytica with no ingested red blood cells or E. dispar. The Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar complex or group includes Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, and E. bangladeshi; however, E. moshkovskii and E. bangladeshi are not routinely reported.


b Although some individuals have changed the species designation for the genus Giardia to G. duodenalis or G. intestinalis, there is no general agreement. Therefore, for this listing, the name Giardia lamblia is retained.

c This designation is not a true genus but a catch-all for organisms that have not been (and may never be) identified to the genus and/or species levels (Microsporidium ceylonensis and Microsporidium africanum). However, it is now listed as one of the genera of microsporidia infecting humans.