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Table 2

Classification of Human Parasites

 

I.          PROTOZOA

            1.         Amebae (Intestinal)

Entamoeba histolytica

Entamoeba dispar

Entamoeba moshkovskii

Entamoeba hartmanni

Entamoeba coli

Entamoeba polecki

Endolimax nana

Iodamoeba bütschlii

Blastocystis hominis

            2.         Flagellates (Intestinal)

Giardia lamblia

Chilomastix mesnili

Dientamoeba fragilis

Pentatrichomonas hominis

Enteromonas hominis

Retortamonas intestinalis

            3.         Ciliates (Intestinal)

                                    Balantidium coli

            4.         Coccidia, Microsporidia (Intestinal)

Cryptosporidium parvum

Cryptosporidium hominis

Cryptosporidium spp.

Cyclospora cayetanensis

Cystoisospora belli

Sarcocystis hominis

Sarcocystis suihominis

Sarcocystis “lindemanni”

Microsporidia

            Enterocytozoon bieneusi

            Encephalitozoon intestinalis

            5.         Apicomplexa, Flagellates (Blood, Tissue)

                                    Apicomplexa (Malaria and babesiosis)

Plasmodium vivax

Plasmodium ovale

Plasmodium malariae

Plasmodium falciparum

Plasmodium knowlesi

Babesia spp.

                                    Flagellates (Leishmaniae, Trypanosomes)

                                    Old World Leishmania species

                                                Leishmania (Leishmania) tropica

                                                Leishmania (Leishmania) major

                                                Leishmania (Leishmania) aethiopica

                                                Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani

                                                Leishmania (Leishmania) archibaldi

                                                Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum                      

                                    New World Leishmania species

     Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana

     Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

     Leishmania (Leishmania) pifanoi

     Leishmania (Leishmania) garnhami

     Leishmania (Leishmania) venezuelensis

     Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi

     Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis

     Leishmania (Viannia) colombiensis

     Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis

     Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni

     Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi

     Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis

     Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana

     Leishmania (Viannia) shawi

                                    Old World Trypanosoma species

                                                Trypanosoma brucei gambiense

                                                Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

                                    New World Trypanosoma species

                                                Trypanosoma cruzi

                                                Trypanosoma rangeli

            6.         Amebae, Flagellates (Other Body Sites)

                                    Amebae

                        Naegleria fowleri

                        Acanthamoeba spp.

                        Hartmanella spp.

                        Balamuthia mandrillaris

                        Sappinia diploidea

                        Entamoeba gingivalis

                                    Flagellates

                        Trichomonas vaginalis

                        Trichomonas tenax

            7.         Apicomplexa, Microsporidia (Other Body Sites)

                                    Apicomplexa

                                                Toxoplasma gondii

                                    Microsporidia

                                                Nosema ocularum

                                                Pleistophora spp.

                                                Pleistophora ronneafiei

                                                Trachipleistophora hominis

                                                Trachipleistophora anthropophthera

                                                Anncaliia vesicularum

                                                Anncaliia (Brachiola) algerae

                                                Anncaliia (Brachiola) connori

                                                Encephalitozoon cuniculi

                                                Encephalitozoon intestinalis

                                                Encephalitozoon hellem

                                                Enterocytozoon bieneusi

                                                Vittaforma corneae (Nosema corneum)         

                                                Microsporidium

II.        NEMATODES (Roundworms)

            1.         Intestinal

Ascaris lumbricoides

Enterobius vermicularis

Ancylostoma duodenale

Necator americanus

Strongyloides stercoralis

Strongyloides fuelleborni

Trichostrongylus colubriformis

Trichostrongylus orientalis

Trichostrongylus spp.

Trichuris trichiura

Capillaria philippinensis

            2.         Tissue

Trichinella spiralis

Trichinella spp. (T. britovi, T. murrelli, T. nativa, T. nelsoni, T. papuae, T. pseudospiralis, T. zimbabwensis)

Visceral larva migrans (Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati)

Ocular larva migrans (Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati)

Cutaneous larva migrans (Ancylostoma braziliense or Ancylostoma caninum)

Dracunculus medinensis

Angiostrongylus cantonensis

Angiostrongylus costaricensis

Gnathostoma spinigerum

Anisakis spp. (larvae from saltwater fish)

Phocanema spp. (larvae from saltwater fish)

Contracaecum spp. (larvae from saltwater fish)

Hysterothylacium

Porrocaecum spp.

Capillaria hepatica

Thelazia spp.

Ternidens diminutus

            3.         Blood and Tissues (Filarial Worms)

Wuchereria bancrofti

Brugia malayi

Brugia timori

Loa loa

Onchocerca volvulus

Mansonella ozzardi

Mansonella streptocerca

Mansonella perstans

Dirofilaria immitis (usually lung lesion; in dogs, heartworm)

Dirofilaria spp. (D. tenuis, may be found in subcutaneous nodules)

III.       CESTODES (Tapeworms)

            1.         Intestinal

Diphyllobothrium latum

Diplogonoporus spp.

Dipylidium caninum

Hymenolepis nana

Hymenolepis diminuta

Taenia solium

Taenia saginata

            2.         Tissue (Larval Forms)

Taenia solium

Echinococcus granulosus

Echinococcus multilocularis

Echinococcus vogeli

Echinococcus oligarthrus

Multiceps multiceps

Spirometra mansonoides

Diphyllobothrium spp.

IV.       TREMATODES (Flukes)

            1.         Intestinal

Fasciolopsis buski

Echinostoma ilocanum

Echinochasmus perfoliatus

Heterophyes heterophyes

Metagonimus yokogawai

Gastrodiscoides hominis

Phaneropsolus bonnei

Prosthodendrium molenkempi

Spelotrema brevicaeca

Plagiochis spp.

Neodiplostomum seoulense

            2.         Liver/Lung

Clonorchis (Opisthorchis) sinensis

Opisthorchis viverrini

Opisthorchis felineus

Dicrocoelium dendriticum

Fasciola hepatica

Fasciola gigantica

Paragonimus westermani

Paragonimus mexicanus

Paragonimus kellicotti

Paragonimus africanus

Paragonimus uterobilateralis

Paragonimus miyazakii

Paragonimus caliensis

            3.         Blood

Schistosoma mansoni

Schistosoma haematobium

Schistosoma japonicum

Schistosoma intercalatum

Schistosoma mekongi

Schistosoma malayi

Schistosoma mattheei

V.        PENTASTOMIDS (TONGUE WORMS)  See Arthropods below

                        Tissue (larval forms)

                                    Armillifer spp.

                                    Linguatula serrata

                                    Sebekia spp.

                        Nasopharyngeal

                                    Armillifer spp.

                                    Linguatula serrata

VI.       ACANTHOCEPHALANS (THORNY-HEADED WORMS)

                        Intestine

                                    Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus

                                    Moniliformis moniliformis

VII.     ARTHROPODS

            1.         Arachnida                                                                             

Scorpions                                                                               

Spiders (black widow, brown recluse)                                               

Ticks (Dermacentor, Ixodes, Argas, Ornithodoros)

Mites (Sarcoptes)

            2.         Crustacea

                                    Copepods (Cyclops)

                                    Crayfish, lobsters, crabs

            3.         Pentastomida (Classification under review)                                  

                                    Tongue worms                                               

            4.         Diplopoda

                                    Millipedes

            5.         Chilopoda

                                    Centipedes

            6.         Insecta

Phthiraptera:  lice (Pediculus, Phthirus)

Blatteria:  cockroaches

Hemiptera:  true bugs (Triatoma)

Coleoptera:  beetles

Hymenoptera:  bees, wasps, etc.

Lepidoptera:  butterflies, caterpillars, moths, etc.

Diptera:  flies, mosquitoes, gnats, midges (Phlebotomus, Aedes, Anopheles, Glossina,             Simulium, etc.)

Siphonaptera:  fleas (Pulex, Xenopsylla, etc.)

 

 

 

 


Entamoeba histolytica is being used to designate the true pathogenic species, while E. dispar is now being used to designate the nonpathogenic species.  However, unless trophozoites containing ingested red blood cells (E. histolytica) are seen, the two organisms can not be differentiated on the basis of morphology seen in permanent stained smears of fecal specimens.  Fecal immunoassays are available for detecting the Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar group or for differentiating the two species.  E. moshkovskii cannot be differentiated from E. histolytica (no ingested RBCs) or E. dispar.

 

Although some individuals have changed the species designation for the genus Giardia to G. intestinalis or G. duodenalis, there is no general agreement.  Therefore, for this listing, the name Giardia lamblia will be retained. 

 

This designation is not a true genus, but a “catch-all” for those organisms that have not been (or may never be) identified to the genus and/or species levels.  However, it is now listed as one of the genera of microsporidia infecting humans.